What is Gastric Sleeve Surgery?
Gastric Sleeve Surgery, also called sleeve gastrectomy or vertical sleeve gastrectomy is a type of weight loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery, or sleeve gastrectomy, is a surgical weight loss procedure that involves reducing the size of the stomach to limit food intake and help patients achieve significant weight loss. It’s a popular option for those struggling with obesity, and who haven’t had success with traditional weight loss methods.
There are 2 weight loss mechanisms in this surgery; restrictive and hormonal effect. Feeling of satiety with little food after vertically collapsing the stomach is a restrictive effect. The hormonal effect is the loss of appetite with reduced release of the ghrelin hormone produced by the cells in the fundus, which is the upper part of the stomach.
This part is the section that mainly provides the hunger hormone “ghrelin” and diabetic hormones. After the operation, patients lose 65-70% of their excess weight in approximately 12 months. The patient can increase this rate of weight loss by up to 100% through exercise or other supportive factors.
One of the greatest advantages of operation of the tube gastric (sleeve gastrectomy) is that there is no problem in the intake of vitamins and minerals since there is no operation that affects the absorption.
Patients only receive temporary supports such as iron during certain periods (first fluid feeding period). As with all obesity surgeons, nutrition gradually changes in this procedure and should be accompanied by a nutritional counselor during adaptation. Following tube stomach operation, 20% of back weight gain can occur in patients with adaptation disorders in the nutritional form being the biggest factor.
Sleeve stomach (sleeve, diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, fatty liver, joint pain, regression, and recovery in obesity-related conditions such as high cholesterol and triglyceride.
After this surgery, regression, and recovery are achieved in obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, fatty liver, joint pain, high cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery Procedure
Gastric Sleeve Surgery, also known as sleeve gastrectomy, is a popular surgical weight loss procedure. The surgery involves reducing the size of the stomach to help limit food intake and promote substantial weight loss. It’s a highly preferred option among individuals struggling with obesity, especially those who haven’t found success with traditional weight loss methods.
The actual gastric sleeve surgery usually takes between one to two hours. However, the complete process, including pre-operation preparation and post-operation recovery, can take a few more hours. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia and involves making several small incisions in the abdomen to remove a portion of the stomach.
Post-surgery, patients typically need to stay in the hospital for one to three days, depending on their physical condition and the surgeon’s recommendation. This allows medical professionals to closely monitor the patient’s recovery and respond quickly to any potential complications.
The recovery time after gastric sleeve surgery varies with each individual. On average, patients may return to their routine activities in about two to four weeks post-surgery. However, it’s crucial to remember that complete internal healing may take several weeks longer. During the recovery period, patients are usually prescribed a strict diet plan that starts with liquids, advances to pureed food, and eventually reintroduces solid foods.
You will have a restriction of not lifting more than 10 pounds for the first three weeks after the surgery, then weight can be increased to 25 pounds for another three weeks, and after that, you will be able to increase weight lifting to normal.
How you lose weight?
The weight loss process after gastric sleeve surgery is a gradual one, guided by both the surgery’s physiological effects and the patient’s commitment to lifestyle changes. Initially, the reduced stomach size limits food intake dramatically, leading to significant weight loss. This is usually most noticeable in the first three to six months post-surgery.
Additionally, hormonal changes triggered by the surgery reduce feelings of hunger and improve satiety, further aiding the weight loss process. However, long-term weight loss success heavily depends on the patient’s adherence to a balanced diet and regular exercise.
Weight loss after gastric sleeve surgery is slower than with gastric bypass and differs in every individual case. On average, one should expect to lose at least half or a major part of excess body weight within the first year after the surgery. Success is higher for people who are realistic about how much weight will be lost, keep appointments with the medical team, follow the recommended eating plan, and are physically active.
Importance of Nutrition After Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery, also known as sleeve gastrectomy, offers an effective solution for weight loss by reducing the stomach’s size. However, this surgical procedure also necessitates significant dietary changes to facilitate optimal recovery and weight loss, while ensuring nutritional needs are met.
In most cases gastric sleeve surgery, the patient stays in the hospital for 3 days. The patient will need 2 weeks off of the work and require help with family at least one week. Full recovery of this surgery requires typically 6 weeks. You need proper follow your surgeons advised before and after surgery especially diet & physical exercises.
- The drinking water is started in the 6th hour after the operation.
- Liquid foods are consumed between 1 and 15 days.
- Soft puree is consumed for 16 to 30 days.
- Solid food feeding starts after the 1st month.
Phased Diet Progression Post-Surgery
Post-surgery, a phased diet is usually recommended to allow the stomach time to heal while gradually adjusting to its new capacity. This phased approach typically consists of four stages:
For the first week or two after surgery, patients are generally advised to follow a clear liquid diet, which may include water, broth, sugar-free gelatin, and diluted juice.
After successfully tolerating liquids, patients can gradually transition to pureed foods. This phase typically includes protein-rich foods like lean meats, beans, and eggs, blended with liquids such as broth, juice, or milk.
Once the pureed foods are well-tolerated, soft, easy-to-chew foods can be introduced. This phase usually lasts about eight weeks post-surgery.
Around the ninth week post-surgery, patients are generally allowed to resume a diet of regular, nutrient-dense solid foods, albeit in much smaller portions than before the surgery.
Nutritional Guidelines After Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Following these nutritional guidelines can assist in a smoother recovery and successful weight loss:
- Eat Balanced Meals: Focus on consuming protein-rich foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day, but avoid drinking during meals.
- Eat Slowly: Take small bites and chew thoroughly to aid digestion and prevent discomfort.
- Limit Sugary and High-Fat Foods: These can cause dumping syndrome, a condition where food moves too quickly from the stomach to the small intestine.
Take Recommended Supplements: Vitamin and mineral supplements, including a multivitamin, calcium, and possibly vitamin B12, iron, and folate, are usually recommended to prevent deficiencies.
Risks of the Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery, also known as sleeve gastrectomy, is a type of weight-loss surgery that involves removing a large portion of the stomach, leaving a smaller, tube-shaped stomach. Like any surgery, it has potential risks and complications. They include:
Surgical Risks: These risks are similar to those of any major surgery and include infection, blood clots, bleeding, and adverse reactions to anesthesia.
Leakage: There’s a risk that the line where the portion of the stomach was removed will leak gastric fluid. This can lead to a serious infection and requires immediate medical attention.
Nutrient Deficiencies: Since the surgery affects how much food you can eat and how your body absorbs nutrients, you may have to deal with nutritional deficiencies. This may require lifelong vitamin and mineral supplements.
Gastrointestinal Issues: Some people may experience changes in bowel habits, acid reflux, dumping syndrome (rapid gastric emptying leading to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and constipation.
Weight Regain: While gastric sleeve surgery can lead to significant weight loss, it’s still possible to regain weight. This is particularly true if the lifestyle changes needed to maintain the weight loss, such as healthy eating and regular exercise, are not followed.
Stomach Stricture or Obstruction: In some cases, scarring can lead to a narrowing of the stomach, leading to difficulties with food passing to the small intestine. Similarly, a blockage or obstruction can occur.
Psychological Effects: Rapid weight loss can lead to emotional and psychological issues, including depression and anxiety. Also, the person might struggle with the adjustments needed after the surgery, such as diet and lifestyle changes.
Long-term mortality: There may be an increased risk of long-term mortality due to diseases such as heart disease, and certain types of cancer following gastric sleeve surgery, particularly if the necessary lifestyle changes are not made.
Remember that the risks associated with gastric sleeve surgery must be weighed against the risks associated with obesity itself, which include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. It’s important to discuss these risks and benefits with a healthcare provider before making a decision.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery in Turkey
Medical tourism, which involves traveling to a foreign country for the purpose of obtaining medical treatment, has grown in popularity over the past few years, and Turkey has become one of the popular destinations for this, including for gastric sleeve surgery. The reasons behind this popularity include lower costs compared to countries such as the US or UK, highly qualified surgeons, and modern medical facilities.
However, like any other major decision related to health care, it’s important to consider several factors before choosing to undergo gastric sleeve surgery in Turkey:
Quality of Care: Ensure that the hospital or clinic you’re considering is accredited by international bodies such as the Joint Commission International (JCI), which certifies that the facility meets high standards of patient care and safety.
Surgeon’s Credentials: Check your surgeon’s qualifications and experience, particularly in performing gastric sleeve surgeries. They should be board-certified and have ample experience with the procedure.
Cost: While the cost of gastric sleeve surgery in Turkey is generally lower compared to many Western countries, it’s important to ensure that this isn’t at the expense of quality or safety. Also, consider the cost of flights, accommodation, and any potential follow-up care that may be needed.
Post-Op Care: Follow-up care is crucial after a gastric sleeve surgery, including dietary counseling, psychological support, and regular check-ups. Make sure that a comprehensive follow-up plan is part of your treatment package.
Language Barrier: Communication with your healthcare team is critical for your safety and satisfaction. If you don’t speak Turkish, ensure that there will be someone (like a translator or English-speaking staff) available to facilitate effective communication.
Legal and Ethical Considerations: Understand the legal implications of undergoing surgery abroad, including what happens in case of malpractice or complications. Also, consider ethical issues like supporting a healthcare system that may be exploitative of its workers or inequitable to local patients.
Travel and Recovery: Traveling after surgery can be challenging, and recovery time can be longer than expected. Be sure to account for these factors when planning your trip and the time you’ll need off work or other commitments.
Remember, thorough research and consultation with healthcare professionals is key when considering such a significant decision. If you decide to go ahead with gastric sleeve surgery in Turkey, ensure that you have a support system in place for your return home and that your local healthcare provider is informed and involved in your post-operative care.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery Alternatives
Swallowable Gastric Balloon: This is a non-surgical procedure that involves swallowing a capsule containing a small balloon. Once the balloon is in the stomach, it is filled with a saline solution. The balloon occupies space in the stomach, helping you feel full faster and therefore eat less. After several months (usually 6 months), the balloon is removed through an endoscopic procedure.
Gastric Balloon (Intragastric Balloon): Similar to the swallowable balloon, this procedure also involves placing a balloon in your stomach to help you lose weight. However, it is not swallowed in a capsule but inserted directly into the stomach through the mouth using an endoscope while you are under sedation. The balloon is then filled with saline. Like the swallowable balloon, it also makes you feel fuller faster.
Gastric Bypass Surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass): This surgery reduces the size of the stomach and reroutes the digestive system, bypassing part of the small intestine. The procedure creates a small pouch at the top of the stomach. The second part of the surgery involves the small intestine being divided and the bottom end of the divided small intestine being brought up and connected to the newly created small stomach pouch. The procedure results in feeling full more quickly and the body absorbing fewer calories.
Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery: This is a simpler and shorter procedure than the standard gastric bypass. The surgeon uses a laparoscopic technique to divide the stomach into a small upper pouch and a larger remnant pouch and then connects the small pouch directly to the small intestine. This leads to reduced food intake and less absorption of calories.
Each of these procedures carries its own set of risks and benefits, and it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional to understand which is most suitable based on your health profile, weight loss goals, and personal preferences.